Lack of stability often limits the use of biopharmaceuticals and vaccines (e.g., proteins, DNA/RNA, virus-like-particles, and viruses) as human medicines. Loss of potency can occur during manufacturing, storage, or administration. Our research objective is to understand the changes in physicochemical properties that accompany the loss of biological activity, and to develop new analytical techniques to monitor these changes at the molecular level. A detailed understanding of the causes and molecular mechanisms of instability will guide the design of more potent and stable biopharmaceutical and vaccine dosage forms. For more information, see Macromolecule and Vaccine Stabilization Center.