Ken Audus
  • Former Dean
  • Professor
School of Pharmacy - Pharmaceutical Chemistry
785-864-3550
Office
Simons Biosciences Research Laboratories, Room 174
University of Kansas
2095 Constant Avenue
Lawrence, KS 66047

Education

  • Postdoctoral Associate, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (1984-1986)
  • Ph.D., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (1984)
  • B.S., University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (1980) 

Biography

Kenneth L. (Ken) Audus holds a B.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of South Dakota in 1980 and a Ph.D. in Pharmacology from the University of Kansas Medical Center in 1984.  After completing postdoctoral work in Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the University of Kansas, he joined the faculty of that Department in 1986 and worked his way up through the academic ranks to become a Full Professor in 1996, and then Chair of the Department in 1998. Dr. Audus then served as Dean of the School of Pharmacy from April 2004 before returning to the Pharmaceutical Chemistry faculty in July of 2019. 

Dr. Audus’ research interests have included the development and application of cell culture models to study drug distribution across the blood-brain barrier for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, and human trophoblast culture systems for studying how drug distribution across the placenta might be controlled and provide for safer drugs for mother and the fetus during pregnancy. Dr. Audus is the author or co-author of more than 165 research articles, one patent, and the co-editor of one book on these topics. Dr. Audus is also an Editor for the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Research Overview

Dean Audus’ research interests have included the development and application of cell culture models to study drug distribution across the blood-brain barrier for the treatment of tumors and Alzheimer’s disease, and human trophoblast culture systems for studying how drug distribution across the placenta might be controlled and provide for safer drugs for mother and the fetus during pregnancy.

Research Interests

  • Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Placental Barrier
  • Endothelia
  • Trophoblasts
  • In Vitro Models
  • Transport
  • Metabolism
  • Drug delivery

Selected Publications

Audus, K.L. and Gordon, M.A. (1982) Characteristics of tricyclic antidepressant binding sites associated with murine lymphocytes from spleen. J. Immunopharmacol. 4, 1-12.  PMID: 7153523

Audus, K.L. and Gordon, M.A. (1982) Tricyclic antidepressant effects on the murine lymphocyte mitogen response. J.  Immunopharmacol. 4, 13-27.  PMID: 7153524

Audus, K.L., Johnson, D.L., and Gordon, M.A. (1983) Use of  fluorescent probes to monitor propranolol effects on the murine splenic lymphocyte. J. Immunopharmacol. 4, 329-353.  PMID: 7184964

Audus, K.L. and Gordon, M.A. (1984) Effect of tricyclic antidepressant drugs on lymphocyte membrane structure. J. Immunopharmacol. 6, 105-132.  PMID: 6470494

Audus, K.L. (1984) Tricyclic antidepressant and beta-adrenergic antagonist interactions with biological and model membranes. Dissertation for Doctor of Philosophy.

Audus, K.L. and Gordon, M.A. (1985) Tricyclic antidepressant drug effects on liposomal membranes.  Biochem. Pharmacol. 34, 705- 708. PMID: 3977946

Audus, K.L. and Borchardt, R.T. (1986) Characterization of an in vitro blood-brain barrier model system for studying drug transport and metabolism. Pharm. Res. 3, 81-87.

Baranczyk-Kuzma, A., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1986) Catecholamine-metabolizing enzymes of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers.  J. Neurochem. 46, 1956-1960.  PMID: 2871135

Audus, K.L. and Borchardt, R.T. (1986) Characteristics of the large neutral amino acid transport system of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers. J. Neurochem. 47, 484-488.  PMID: 3734791

Rim, S., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1986) Relationship of octanol/buffer and octanol/water partition coefficients to transcellular diffusion across brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers. Int. J. Pharm. 32, 79-84.

Audus, K.L. and Borchardt, R.T. (1986) Carrier mediated and receptor mediated transport across the endothelial cells of the  vasculature, in Theory and Application of Bioreversible  Carriers in Drug Design (Roche, E.B., Ed.), pp 226-242, Plenum Press, New York.

Audus, K.L. and Borchardt, R.T. (1987) The Use of Isolated Epithelial and Cultured Endothelial Cells to Elucidate Drug Transport Mechanisms, in International Pharmacology Symposia (M.J. Rand and C. Raper, eds.), pp 615-618, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Audus, K.L., Hidalgo, I.J., and Borchardt, R.T. (1987) Biological barriers to efficient delivery of peptides, in Topics in Pharmaceutical Sciences (D.D. Breimer and P. Speiser, Eds.), pp 325-337, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 

Baranczyk-Kuzma, A. and Audus, K.L. (1987) Characteristics of aminopeptidase activity from brain microvessel endothelium. J.  Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 7, 801-805.  PMID: 3693437

Audus, K.L. and Borchardt, R.T. (1987) Bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers as a model system for the blood-brain barrier. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 507, 9-18. PMID: 3442370

van Bree, J., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1988) Carrier-mediated transport of baclofen across monolayers of bovine brain endothelial cells in primary culture. Pharm. Res. 5, 369-371.  PMID: 3244648

Audus, K.L., Shinogle, J.A., Holthaus, S.R., and Guillot, F.L. (1988) Aluminum effects on brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayer permeability. Int. J. Pharm. 45, 249-257.

Audus, K.L., Holthaus, S.R., Shinogle, J.A., and van Bree, J.M.B.B. (1988) Aluminum effects on brain microvessel endothelial cell growth in primary culture. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 60, 71-85. PMID: 3381012

Tavakoli-Saberi, M.R., and Audus, K.L. (1989) Cultured buccal epithelium: An in vitro model derived from hamster pouch for studying drug transport and metabolism. Pharm. Res. 6, 160-166. PMID: 2474807

Baranczyk-Kuzma, A., Raub, T.J., and Audus, K.L. (1989) Demonstration of acid hydrolase activity in primary cultures of bovine brain microvessel endothelium. J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 9, 280-289.  PMID: 2497111

Shah, M., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1989) The application of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers grown onto polycarbonate membranes in vitro to estimate the potential permeability of solutes through the blood-brain barrier.  Pharm. Res. 6, 624-627. PMID: 2798313

Tavakoli-Saberi, M.R. and Audus, K.L. (1989) Physicochemical factors affecting beta-adrenergic antagonist permeation across cultured buccal epithelium. Int. J. Pharm. 56, 135-142.

Baranczyk-Kuzma, A., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1989) Substrate specificity of phenol sulfotransferase from primary cultures of bovine brain microvessel endothelium. Neurochem. Res. 14, 689-691. PMID: 2779729

Raeissi, S. and Audus, K.L. (1989) Brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayer permeability to Delta-sleep-inducing peptide. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 41, 848-852.

Audus, K.L. (1990) Blood-brain barrier: Mechanisms of peptide regulation and transport. J. Controlled Rel. 11, 51-59.

Guillot, F.L., Audus, K.L. and Raub, T.J. (1990) Fluid-phase endocytosis by primary cultures of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers. Microvasc. Res. 39, 1-14. PMID: 2314302

Audus, K.L., Bartel, R.L., Hidalgo, I.J., and Borchardt, R.T. (1990) The use of cultured epithelial and endothelial cells for drug transport and metabolism studies. Pharm. Res. 7, 435-451.  PMID: 2195492

Raub, T.J. and Audus, K.L. (1990) Adsorptive endocytosis and membrane recycling by cultured primary bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers. J. Cell. Sci. 97, 127-138. PMID: 2258384

Guillot, F.L. and Audus, K.L. (1990) Angiotensin peptide regulation of fluid-phase endocytosis in brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers. J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 10, 827-834.  PMID: 2211876

Audus, K.L. (1990) Blood-brain barrier: Mechanisms of peptide regulation and transport, in Advances in Drug Delivery Systems IV, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Drug Delivery Systems (J.M. Anderson and S.W. Kim, Eds.), pp 51-60, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Audus, K.L. (1991) Endothelial barriers, in Pharmaceutical Applications of Cell and Tissue Culture, NATO Advanced Research Workshop (G. Wilson, S.S. Davis, and L. Illum, Eds.), pp 163-174, Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.

Audus, K.L., Williams, A., and Tavakoli-Saberi, M.R. (1991) A comparison of aminopeptidases of excised human buccal epithelium and primary cultures of hamster pouch buccal epithelium. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 43, 363-365.   PMID: 1680182

Audus, K.L. and Borchardt, R.T. (1991) Transport of macromolecules across the capillary endothelium, in Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Volume 100 (R.L. Juliano, eds.), pp 43-70, Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Takakura, Y., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1991) Blood-brain barrier: Transport studies in isolated brain capillaries and in cultured brain endothelial cells. Adv. Pharmacol. 22, 137-165. PMID: 1958501

Guillot, F.L. and Audus, K.L. (1991) Some characteristics of specific angiotensin II binding sites on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers. Peptides 12, 535-540. PMID: 1923932

Guillot, F.L. and Audus, K.L. (1991) Angiotensin peptide regulation of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayer permeability. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 18, 212-218. PMID: 1717781

Audus, K.L. and Tavakoli-Saberi, M.R. (1991) Aminopeptidases of newborn bovine nasal turbinate epithelial cell cultures. Int. J. Pharm. 76, 247-255.

Audus, K.L., Guillot, F.L., and Braughler, J.M. (1991) Evidence for 21-aminosteroid association with the hydrophobic domains in brain microvessel endothelial cells. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 11, 361-371.  PMID: 1797623

Baranczyk-Kuzma, A., Audus, K.L., Guillot, F.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1992) Effects of selected vasoactive substances on adenylate cyclase activity in brain, isolated brain microvessels, and primary cultures of brain microvessel endothelial cells. Neurochem. Res. 17, 209-214.  PMID: 1311435

Takakura, Y., Audus, K.L., Borchardt, R.T. (1992) Cultured brain microvessel endothelial cells as in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier. NIDA Res. Monogr. 120, 138-152.  PMID: 1501683

Baranczyk-Kuzma, A., Barszczewska, I., and Audus, K.L. (1992) The effect of exo- and endogenous compounds on the activity of glutathione-S-transferase from monkey brain. Acta Biochim. Polon. 39, 133-138.  PMID: 1441826

Baranczyk-Kuzma, A., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1992) Properties of phenol sulfotransferase from brain of the monkey Rhesus macaqueActa Biochim. Polan. 39, 153-158.  PMID: 1441830

Audus, K.L., Chikhale, P., Miller, D.W., Thompson, S.E., and Borchardt, R.T. (1992) Brain uptake of drugs: The iInfluence of chemical and biological factors.  Adv. Drug Res. 23, 1-64.

Audus, K.L., Tavakoli-Saberi, M.R., Zheng, H., and Boyce, E.N. (1992) Chlorhexidine effects on membrane lipid domains of human buccal epithelial cells. J. Dent. Res. 71, 1298-1303.  PMID: 1613179

Miller, D.W, Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1992) Application of cultured endothelial cells of the brain microvasculature in the study of the blood-brain barrier. J. Tiss. Cult. Meth. 14, 217-224.

Banks, W.A., Audus, K.L., and Davis, T.P. (1992) Permeability of the blood-brain barrier to peptides: An approach to the development of therapeutically useful analogs. Peptides 13, 1289-1294.  PMID: 1494505

Audus, K.L., Knaub, S.R., Guillot, F.L., and Schaeffer, J.M. (1992) Effect of protein binding on ivermectin uptake by bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers. Vet. Res. Commun. 16, 365-377. PMID: 1494861

Audus, K.L. (1993) Contributions of the physical properties of neuroprotective agents to their efficacy as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation, in Oxygen Free Radicals in Tissue Damage (Tarr, M. and Samson, F., Eds.), pp 196-210, Birkhäuser, Boston, MA.

Audus, K.L. and Raub, T.J. (1993) Lysosomes of brain and other vascular endothelia, in  Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Blood-Brain Barrier (Pardridge, W.M., Ed.), pp 201-227, Raven Press, New York.

Baranczyk-Kuzma, A., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1993) Sulfation of catecholamines, hypertensive and hypotensive drugs by monkey brain cortex enzymes. Acta Biochim. Polon. 40, 189-192.  PMID: 8372555

Shi, F., Bailey, C., Malick, A.W., and Audus, K.L. (1993) Biotin uptake and transport across bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers. Pharm. Res. 10, 282-288.  PMID: 8456078

Reardon, P.M. and Audus K.L. (1993) Applications of primary cultures of brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers in the study of vasoactive peptide interaction with the blood-brain barrier. s.t.p. pharma. sci. 3, 63-68.

Reardon, P.M., Gochoco, C.H., Audus, K.L., Wilson, G., and Smith, P.L. (1993) In vitro nasal transport across ovine mucosa: Effects of ammonium glycyrrhizinate on electrical properties and permeability of growth hormone releasing peptide, mannitol, and Lucifer yellow. Pharm. Res. 10, 553-561.  PMID: 8483838

Baranczyk-Kuzma, A., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1993) Sulfation of hypertensive and hypotensive drugs in monkey brain cortex. Neurochem. Res. 18, 783-786.  PMID: 8367023

Reardon, P.M. and Audus, K.L. (1993) Ammonium glycyrrhizinate (AMGZ) effects on membrane integrity. Int. J. Pharm. 94, 161-170.

Sato, T.N., Qin, Y., Kozak, C.A., and Audus, K.L. (1993) tie-1 and tie-2 define another class of putative receptor tyrosine kinase genes expressed in early embryonic vascular system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 9355-9358. PMID: 8415706

Shi, F., Cavitt, J.L., Bailey, C., Malick, A.W., and Audus, K.L. (1993) Characterization of dextromethorphan and dextrorphan uptake by a putative glutamic acid carrier and passive diffusion across brain microvessel endothelium. Drug Delivery 1, 113-118.

Zheng, H. and Audus, K.L. (1994) Cytotoxic effects of chlorhexidine and nystatin on cultured hamster buccal epithelial cells. Int. J. Pharm. 101, 121-126.

Zheng, H., Shah, P.K., and Audus, K.L. (1994) Primary culture of rat gastric epithelial cells as an in vitro model to evaluate antiulcer agents. Pharm. Res. 11, 77-82. PMID: 8140059

Turunen, T.M., Paronen, P., Urtti, A., Audus, K.L., and Rytting, J.H. (1994) Effect of some penetration enhancers on epithelial membrane lipid domains: Evidence from fluorescence spectroscopy studies.  Pharm. Res. 11, 288-294.  PMID: 8165190

Thompson, S.E. and Audus, K.L. (1994) Leucine enkephalin metabolism by bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells. Peptides 15, 109-116.  PMID: 8015967

Shi, F. and Audus, K.L. (1994) Biochemical characteristics of primary and passaged cultures of primate brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers. Neurochem. Res. 19, 426-433. PMID: 7915010

LeCluyse, E.L., Audus, K.L., and Hochman, J.H. (1994) Formation of extensive canalicular networks by cultures of primary hepatocytes in a collagen sandwich configuration. Am. J. Physiol. 266, C1764-C1774.  PMID: 8023906

Thompson, S.E. and Audus, K.L. (1994) Leucine enkephalin effects on brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayer permeability.  Pharm. Res. 11, 1366-1370. PMID: 7816772

Thompson, S.E., Cavitt, J., and Audus, K.L. (1994) Leucine enkephalin effects on endocytosis, membrane structure, tight junction integrity and passive permeability in brain microvessel endothelial cells.  J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 24, 818-825.  PMID: 7532761

Borges, N., Shi, F., Azevedo, I., and Audus, K.L. (1994) Changes in brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayer permeability induced by adrenergic drugs. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 269, 243-248.  PMID: 7851500

Borchard, G., Audus, K.L., Kreuter, J., and Shi, F. (1994) Uptake of poly(methylmethacrylate)-nanoparticles by bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers after coating with surfactants. Int. J. Pharm. 110, 29-35.

Adson, A., Raub, T.J., Burton, P.S., Barsuhn, C.L., Hilgers, A.R., Audus, K.L., and Ho, N.F.H. (1994) Quantitative approaches to delineate paracellular diffusion in epithelial cell culture monolayers. J. Pharm. Sci. 83,1529-1536. PMID: 7891269

Shi, F., Cavitt, J., and Audus, K.L. (1995) 21-Aminosteroid and 2-(aminomethyl)chromans inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced lipid peroxidation and permeability enhancement in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 19, 349-357.  PMID: 7557549

Adson, A., Burton, P.S., Raub, T.J., Barsuhn, C.L., Audus, K.L., and Ho, N.F.H. (1995) Passive diffusion of weak organic electrolytes across Caco-2 cell monolayers: Uncoupling the contributions of hydrodynamic, transcellular, and paracellular barriers. J. Pharm. Sci. 84, 1197-1204. PMID: 8801334

Barancyzk-Kuzma, A., Barszczewska, I., Borchardt, R.T., and Audus, K.L. (1995) Sulfate conjugation of catecholamines and their derivatives in monkey brain.  Biogenic Amines 11, 281-293.

Borchardt, R.T., Lane, H.K., Hirst, B.H., Smith, P.L., Audus, K.L., and Tsuji, A. (1995) Application of cell culture systems to the study of drug transport and metabolism, in Pharmacological Sciences: Perspectives for Research and Therapy in the Late 1990's (Cuello, A.C. and Collier, B., Eds.) [12th Int. Congr. Pharmacol.], pp 493-501.  

Zheng, H., Shah, P.K., and Audus, K.L. (1996) Evaluation of antiulcer agents with a human adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS). Int. J. Pharm. 129, 103-112.

Sheng, H., Shah, P.K., and Audus, K.L. (1996) Demonstration of sucralfate-mediated preservation of growth factor bioactivity in the presence of low pH with a human gastric epithelial cell line (AGS).  Pharm. Res. 13, 1122-1126.  PMID: 8842056

Sheng, H., Shah, P.K., and Audus, K.L. (1996) Sucralfate effects on mucus synthesis and secretion by human gastric epithelium in vitro.  Int. J. Pharm. 131, 159-169.      

Audus, K.L. (1996) Buccal epithelial cell cultures as a model to study oral mucosal drug transport and metabolism, in Oral Mucosal Drug Delivery (Rathbone, M.J. and Hadgraft, J., Eds.), pp 101-119, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Audus, K.L., Ng, L., Wang, W., Borchardt, R.T. (1996) Brain microvessel endothelial cell culture systems.  Pharm. Biotechnol. 8, 239-258.  PMID: 8791813

Sakaeda, T., Tada, Y., Sugawara, T., Ryu, T., Hirose, F., Yoshikawa, T., Hirano, K., Kupczyk-Subotkowska, L., Siahaan, T.J., Audus, K.L., and Stella, V.J. (1996) Conjugation with L-glutamic acid for brain drug delivery.  Proceed. Intern. Symp. Control. Rel. Bioact. Mater. 23, 607-608.

Rose, J.M. and Audus, K.L. (1997) Cellular mechanisms regulating losartan transfer across brain capillary endothelial cells in primary culture.  s.t.p. Pharm. Sci. 7, 71-77.

Pal, D., Audus, K.L., and Siahaan, T.J. (1997) Modulation of cellular adhesion in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells by a decapeptide. Brain Res. 747, 103-113. PMID: 9042533

Shi, F., Soares, M.J., Avery, M., Liu, F., Zhang, X., and Audus, K.L. (1997) Permeability and metabolic properties of a trophoblast cell line (HRP-1) derived from normal rat placenta. Exp. Cell Res. 234, 147-155.  PMID: 9223380

Liu, F., Soares, M., and Audus, K.L. (1997) Permeability properties of monolayers of the human trophoblast cell line, BeWo.  Am. J. Physiol. 273, C1596-1604.  PMID: 9374645

Rose, J.M., Peckham, S.L., Scism, J.L., and Audus, K.L. (1998)  Evaluation of the role of P-glycoprotein in ivermectin uptake by primary cultures of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells. Neurochem. Res. 23, 203-209.  PMID: 9475515

Audus, K.L., Rose, J.M., Wang, W., and Borchardt, R.T. (1998) Brain microvessel endothelial cell culture systems, in An Introduction to the Blood-Brain Barrier: Methodology and Biology (W. Pardridge, Ed.), pp 86-93, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Audus, K.L., Liu, F., Ampasavate, C., and Stobaugh, J.F. (1998) Factors regulating peptide passage across the placental barrier, in Alfred Benzon Symposium 43, Peptide and Protein Delivery, pp 67-77, Munksgaard International Publishers Ltd., Copenhagen.

Rose, J.M. and Audus, K.L. (1998) Receptor-mediated angiotensin II transcytosis by brain mcrovessel endothelial cells.  Peptides 19, 1023-1030.  PMID: 9700750

Medlicott, N.J., Foster, K.A., Audus, K.L., Gupta, S., and Stella, V.J. (1998) Comparison of the effects of potential of parenteral vehicles for poorly water soluble anticancer drugs (organic co-solvents and cyclodextrin solutions) on cultured endothelial cells (HUV-EC).  J. Pharm. Sci. 87, 1138-1143.  PMID: 9724567

Foster, K.A., Oster, C.G., Mayer, M.M., Avery, M.L., and Audus, K.L. (1998) Characterization of the A549 cell line as a model for alveolar type II epithelium. Exp. Cell Res. 243, 359-366. PMID: 9743595

Liu, X., Brouwer, K.L.R., Gan, L.-S.L., Brouwer, K.R., Stieger, B., Meier, P.J., Audus, K.L., and LeCluyse, E.L. (1998) Partial maintenance of taurocholate uptake in rat hepatocytes cultured in a collagen sandwich configuration.  Pharm. Res. 15, 1533-1539.  PMID: 9794494

Kenagy, J.,  Avery, M., Liu, F., Soares, M.J., and Audus, K.L. (1998) Gestational and smoking effects on peptidase activity in the placenta. Peptides 19, 1659-1666.  PMID: 9880069

Rose, J.M. and Audus, K.L. (1999) AT1 receptors mediate angiotensin II uptake and transport by brain microvessel endothelial cells in primary culture. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 33, 30-35.  PMID: 9890393

Audus, K.L. (1999) Optimizing Candidate Selection Meeting Report.  IDrugs 2, 91-93. PMID: 16160941

Lutz, K.L., Pal, D., Audus, K.L., and Siahaan, T.J. (1999) Inhibition of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadherin peptides, in Peptides: Frontiers of Science (Tam, J.P. and Kaumaya, P.T.P., Eds.), pp 753-754, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Germany.

Neuwelt, E.A., Abbott, N.J., Drewes, L., Smith, Q.R., Couraud, P.O., Chiocca, E.A., Audus, K.L., Greig, N.H., and Doolittle, N.D. (1999) Cerebrovascular biology and the blood-brain barrier: Challenges and future directions. Neurosurgery 44, 604-608.  PMID: 10069598

Rochat, B. and Audus, K.L. (1999) Drug disposition and targeting: Transport across the blood-brain barrier.  Pharm. Biotechnol. 12, 181-200.  PMID: 10742975

Ho, N.F., Raub, T.J., Burton, P., Barsuhn, C.L., Adson, A., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (1999) Quantitative approaches to delineate passive transport mechanisms in cell culture monolayers, in Transport Processes in Pharmaceutical Systems (Amidon, G.L., Lee, P.I., and Topp, E.T., Eds.), pp 219-316, Marcel Dekker, New York.

Knipp, G.T., Audus, K.L., and Soares, M.J. (1999) Nutrient transport across the placenta.  Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 38, 41-58.  PMID: 10837745

Chandorkar, G., Ampavasate, C., Stobaugh, J.F., and Audus, K.L. (1999) Peptide transport and metabolism across the placenta.  Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 38, 59-68.  PMID: 10837746

Rochat, B., Baumann, P., and Audus, K.L. (1999) Transport mechanisms for the antidepressant citalopram in brain microvessel endothelium. Brain Res. 831, 229-236.  PMID: 10412001

Rose, M.J., Rose, J.M., Lunte, S.M., Audus, K.L., Carlson, R.G., and Stobaugh, J.F. (1999) Determination of angiotensin II in blood-brain barrier permeability studies using microbore LC with p-nitrophenyl 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetate, bis-tetrahydropyranyl ether as a pre-separation electrochemical labeling reagent. Anal. Chim. Acta 394, 299-308.

Audus, K.L. (1999) Controlling drug delivery across the placenta: A commentary. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 8, 161-165.  PMID: 10379038

Avery, M., Audus, K.L., and Aced, A. (1999) Determination of substrate permeability in vitro by RP-HPLC and convective interaction media couple disk HPLC.  Am. Biotech. Lab. 17, 102-103.

Utoguchi, N., Magnusson, M., and Audus, K.L. (1999) Carrier-mediated transport of monocarboxylic acids in BeWo cell monolayers as a model of the human trophoblast. J. Pharm. Sci. 88, 1288-1292.  PMID: 10585224

Audus KL. (1999) Preface: Transplacental drug delivery. Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 38, 1. PMID: 1083774

LeCluyse, E.L., Fix,  J.A., Audus, K.L., and Hochman, J.H. (2000) Regeneration and maintenance of bile canalicular networks in collagen sandwiched hepatocytes. Toxicol. In Vitro 14, 117-132.  PMID: 10793290

Knipp, G.T., Liu, B., Audus, K.L., Fujii, H., Ono, T., and Soares, M.J. (2000) Fatty acid transport regulatory proteins in the developing rat placenta and in trophoblast cell cultures.  Placenta 21, 367-375.  PMID: 10833372

Utoguchi, N. and Audus, K.L. (2000) Carrier-mediated transport of valproic acid in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast cell line.  Int. J.  Pharm. 195, 115-124.  PMID: 10675689

Utoguchi, N., Chandorkar, G.A., Avery, M., and Audus, K.L. (2000) Functional expression of P-glycoprotein in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts and BeWo cells. Reprod. Toxicol. 14, 217-224.  PMID: 10838122

Sakaeda, T., Siahaan, T.J., Audus, K.L., and Stella, V.J. (2000) Enhancement of transport of D-melphalan analogue by conjugation with L-glutamate across bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers. J. Drug Targeting 8,195-204.  PMID: 10938529

Foster, K.A., Avery, M.L., Yazdanian, M., and Audus, K.L. (2000) Characterization of the Calu-3 cell line as a tool to screen for pulmonary drug delivery.  Int. J. Pharm. 208, 1-11. PMID: 11064206

Foster, K.A., Yazdanian, M., and Audus, K.L. (2001) Microparticulate uptake by in vitro cell culture models of the respiratory epithelium. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 53, 57-66. PMID: 11206193

Hamilton, K.O., Yazdanian, M.A., and Audus, K.L. (2001) P-Glycoprotein efflux pump expression and activity in Calu-3 cells. J. Pharm. Sci. 90, 647-658.  PMID: 11288109

Sakaeda, T., Tada, Y., Sugawara, T., Ryu, T., Hirose, F., Yoshikawa, T.,

Hirano, K., Kupczyk-Subotkowska, L., Siahaan, T.J., Audus, K.L., and Stella, V.J. (2001) Conjugation with L-glutamate for in vivo brain drug delivery. J. Drug Targeting 9, 23-37.  PMID: 11378521

Thiel, V.E. and Audus, K.L. (2001) Nitric oxide and blood-brain barrier integrity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 3, 273-278.  PMID: 11396481

Makagiansar, I., Avery, M., Hu, Y.,  Audus, K.L., and Siahaan, T.J. (2001) Improving selectivity of HAV-peptides in modulating E-cadherin-E-cadherin interactions in the Intercellular junctions of MDCK cell monolayers.  Pharm. Res. 18, 446-453. PMID: 11451030

Gumbleton, M. and Audus, K.L. (2001) Progress and limitations in the use of in vitro cell cultures to model blood-brain barrier permeability. J. Pharm. Sci. 90, 1681-1698.  PMID: 11745727

Hamilton, K.O., Topp, E., Makagiansar, I., Yazdanian, M., Siahaan, T., and Audus, K.L. (2001) Multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1) functional activity in Calu-3 cells.  J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 298, 1199-1205. PMID: 11504821

Hamilton, K.O., Yazdanian, M., and Audus, K.L. (2001) Modulation of P-glycoprotein activity in Calu-3 cells using steroids and b-ligands.  Int. J. Pharm. 228, 171-179. PMID: 11576779

Takahashi, T., Utoguchi, N., Takara, A., Yamamoto, N., Nakanishi, T., Tanaka, K., Audus, K.L., and Watanabe, Y. (2001) Carrier-mediated transport of folic acid in BeWo cell monolayers as a model of human trophoblast. Placenta 22, 863-869. PMID: 11718574

Freed, A.L., Audus, K.L., and Lunte, S.M. (2001) Investigation of the metabolism of substance P at the blood-brain barrier by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Electrophoresis 22, 3778-3784. PMID: 11699918

Freed, A.L., Audus, K.L., and Lunte, S.M. (2002) Investigation of substance P transport across the blood-brain barrier. Peptides 23, 157-165. PMID: 11814631

Hamilton, K.O. and Audus, K.L. (2002) Contribution of efflux pump activity to the delivery of pulmonary therapeutics.  Current Drug Metabol. 3, 1-12.  PMID: 11876574

Ampasavate, C., Chandorkar, G.A, VanderVelde, D., Stobaugh, J.F., and Audus, K.L. (2002) Transport and metabolism of opioid peptides across BeWo Cells, an in vitro model of the placental barrier. Int. J. Pharm. 233, 85-98.  PMID: 11897413

Michaelis, M.L., Chen, Y., Hill, S., Reiff, E., Georg, G., Rice, T., and Audus, K.L. (2002), Amyloid peptide toxicity and microtubule-stabilizing drugs. J. Mol. Neurosci. 19, 101-105.  PMID: 12212764

Audus, K.L., Soares, M.J., and Hunt, J.S. (2002) Characteristics of the fetal/maternal interface with potential usefulness in the development of future immunological and pharmacological strategies. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 301, 402-409.  PMID: 11961037

Young, A.M., Fukuhara, A., and Audus, K.L. (2002) BeWo cells: An in vitro system representing the blood-placental barrier, in Cell Culture Models of Biological Barriers (Lear, C.M., Ed.), pp 337-349, Harwood Academic Publishers, United Kingdom.

Hugger, E.D., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (2002) The effects of polyethylene glycol on efflux transporters in Caco-2 cell monolayers. J. Pharm. Sci. 91, 1980-1990. PMID: 12210045

Hugger, E.D., Novak, B., Burton, P., Audus, K.L., and Borchardt, R.T. (2002) A comparison of commonly used polyethoxylated pharmaceutical excipients on their ability to inhibit P-glycoprotein activity in vitro.  J. Pharm. Sci. 91, 1991-2002.  PMID: 12210046

Sinaga E., Jois, S.D., Avery, M., Makagiansar, I.T., Tambunan, U.S., Audus, K.L., and Siahaan, T.J. (2002) Increasing paracellular porosity by E-cadherin peptides: discovery of bulge and groove regions in the EC1-domain of E-cadherin.  Pharm. Res. 19, 1170-9. PMID: 12240943

Avery, M.L., Meek, C.E., and Audus, K.L. (2003) The presence of inducible cytochrome P450 types 1A1 and 1A2 in the BeWo cell line.  Placenta 24, 45-52.  PMID: 12495659

Young, A.M., Allen, C.E., and Audus, K.L. (2003) Efflux transporters of the placenta. Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 55, 125-132.  PMID: 12535577

Wimalasena, R., Audus, K.L., and Stobaugh, J.F. (2003) Rapid optimization of the post-column flurogenic ninhydrin reaction for the HPLC-based derivatization of bradykinin and related fragments. Biomed. Chromatography 17, 165-171. PMID: 12717806

Rice, A., Michaelis, M.L., Georg, G., Liu, Y., Turunen, B., and Audus, K.L. (2003) Overcoming the blood-brain barrier to taxane delivery for brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors.  J. Mol. Neurosci. 20, 339-344.  PMID: 14501017

Silverstein, P., Karunaratne, D.N., and Audus, K.L. (2003) Uptake studies for evaluating activity of efflux transporters in a cell line representative of the blood-brain barrier. Curr. Protocols Pharmacol. Supplement 23, 7.7.1-7.7.14.  PMID: 21956812

Rice, A., Silverstein, P., and Audus, K.L. (2004) Brain microvessel endothelial cell cultures as in vitro models to study the blood-brain barrier, in Blood-Spinal and Brain Barriers in Health and Disease (Sharma, H.S., Ed.), pp 47-56, Academic Press, Inc., New York.

Thadani, P.V., Strauss, J.E. III, Dey, S.K., Anderson, V.M., Audus, K.L., Coats, K.S., Cross, J.C., Erlebacher, A., Ganapathy, V., Linzer, D.I., Miller, R.K., Novak, D.A., Rapaka, R.S., Sadovsky, Y., Salafia, C.M., Soares, M., and Unadkat, J. (2004) National Institute on Drug Abuse Conference report on placental proteins, drug transport, and fetal development.  Am. J. Ob. Gyn. 191, 1858-1862.  PMID: 15592265

Michaelis, M.L., Ansar, S., Chen, Y., Reiff, E.R., Seyb, K.I., Himes, R.H., Audus, K.L., and Georg, G.I. (2005) β-Amyloid-induced neurodegeneration and protection by structurally diverse microtubule-stabilizing drugs.  J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.312, 659-668.  PMID: 15375176

Rytting, E. and Audus, K.L. (2005) OCTN2-Mediated carnitine uptake in placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells.  J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 312, 192-198.  PMID: 15316089

Karunaratne, D.N., Silverstein, P.S., Vasandani, V., Young, A.M., Rytting, E., Yops, B., and Audus, K.L. (2005) Cell culture models for drug transport studies, in Drug Delivery: Principles and Applications (Wang, B., Siahaan, T.J., and Soltero, R.A, Eds.), pp. 103-125, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Rice, A., Liu, Y., Michaelis, M.L., Himes, R.H., Georg, G., and Audus, K.L. (2005) Chemical modification of paclitaxel (taxol) reduces P-glycoprotein interactions and increases permeation across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in vivo.   J. Med. Chem. 48, 832-838.  PMID: 15689167

Jin, H. and Audus, K.L. (2005) Effect of bisphenol A on drug efflux in BeWo, a human trophoblast-like cell line.  Placenta, 26 Suppl.A, S96-S103.  PMID: 15837075

Nanovskaya, T., Nekhayeva, I., Karunaratne, D.N., Audus, K.L., Hankins, G.D.V., and Ahmed, M. (2005) Role of P-glycoprotein in transplacental transfer of methadone.   Biochem. Pharmacol. 69, 1869-1878.  PMID: 15876424

Bode, C., Jin, H., Rytting, E., Silverstein, P., Young, A.M., and Audus, K.L. (2006) In vitro models for studying trophoblast transcellular transport, in Methods in Molecular Medicine, Vol. 122: Placenta and Trophoblast: Protocols and Methods, Volume II (Soares, M.J. and Hunt, J.S., Eds.), pp 225-239, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.   PMID: 16511984

Ge, H., Vasandani, V., Huff, J.K., Audus, K.L., Himes, R.H., Seelig, A., and Georg, G.I. (2006) Synthesis and interactions of 7-deoxy-, 10-deacetoxy and 7,10-dideoxypaclitaxel with MCF7-ADR cancer cells and bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.  Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 16, 433-436. PMID: 16271474

Spletstoser, J.T., Turunen, B.J., Desino, K., Rice, A., Himes, R.H., Audus, K.L., and Georg, G.I. (2006) Single-site chemical modification of the Baccatin core of Paclitaxel analogs reduces P-glycoprotein interactions and retains potency.   Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 16, 495-498.  PMID: 16289636

Young, A.M., Audus, K.L., Proudfoot, J., and Yazdanian, M. (2006) Tetrazole compounds: The effect of structure and charge on Caco-2 permeability.  J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 717-725.  PMID: 16498570

Chappa, A.K., Desino, K.E., Lunte, S.M., and Audus, K.L. (2006) Functional aspects of vasoactive peptides at the blood-brain barrier, in Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides (Kastin, A.J., Ed.), pp 1461-1468, Elsevier, San Diego, CA.

Chappa, A.K., Audus, K.L., and Lunte, S.M. (2006) Characteristics of substance P transport across the blood-brain barrier.   Pharm. Res. 23, 1201-1208.  PMID: 16729222

Chappa, A.K., Cooper, J.D., Audus, K.L., and Lunte, S.M. (2007) Investigation of the metabolism of Substance-P at the blood-brain barrier using LC-MS/MS.  J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.43, 1409-1415.  PMID: 17118606

Rytting, E., Bryan, J., Southard, M., and Audus, K.L. (2007) Low-affinity uptake of the fluorescent organic cation 4-Di-1-ASP in BeWo cells.   Biochem. Pharmacol. 73, 891-900.  PMID: 17174940

Ansar, S., Burlison, J.A., Hadden, M.K., Yu, X.M., Desino, K.E., Bean, J., Neckers, L., Audus, K.L., Michaelis, M.L., and Blagg, B.S.J. (2007)  A non-toxic Hsp90 inhibitor protects neurons from Aβ-induced toxicity.  Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 1984-1990.  PMID: 17276679

Karunaratne, D.N. and Audus, K.L. (2007) Use of fluorescent probes to monitor the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and MRP-1 in BeWo cells.  J. Natl. Sci. Found. (Sri Lanka) 35, 19-27.

Rytting, E. and Audus, K.L. (2007) Effects of low oxygen levels on the expression and function of transporter OCTN2 in BeWo cells.  J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59, 1095-1102.  PMID: 17725851

Yusuf-Makagiansar, H., Yakovleva, T.V., Tejo, B.AA., Hamilton, K.O., Hu, Y., Verkihvker, G.M., Audus, K.L., and Siahaan, T.J. (2007) Sequence recognition of α-LFA-1-derived peptides by ICAM-1 cell receptors: Inhibitors of T-cell adhesion.  Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 70, 237-246.   PMID: 17718718

Aldrich, J.V., Patkar, K.A., Chappa, A.K., Fang, W., Audus, K.L.,  Lunte, S.M., Carey, A.N., and McLaughlin, J.P. (2007) Development of centrally acting peptide analogs: Structure-transport studies and pharmacological evaluation of analogs of the opioid peptide dynorphin.  Proc. 4th Internatl. Peptide Sym., 1-3.

Rytting, E. and Audus, K.L. (2008) Contributions of phosphorylation to regulation of OCTN2 uptake of carnitine are minimal in BeWo cells.  Biochem. Pharmacol.75, 745-751. PMID: 17977516

Mitra, P. and Audus, K.L. (2008) Multidrug resistance mechanisms and in vitro models of the placental barrier, in Preclinical Biopharmaceutics – In Situ, In Vitro, and In Silico Tools for Drug Absorption Studies (Ehrhardt, C. and Kim, K.-J., Eds.), pp. 368-396, Springer, New York, NY.

Turunen, B.J., Ge, H., Oyetunji, J., Desino, K.E., Vasandani, V., Himes, R.H., Audus, K.L., Seelig, A., and Georg, G.I. (2008) Paclitaxel succinate analogs: Anionic and amide introduction as a strategy to impart blood-brain barrier permeability.  Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.18, 5971-5974.  PMID: 18926701

Desino, K.E.,  Ansar, S., Georg, G.I., Himes, R.H., Michaelis, M.L., Powell, D.R., Reiff, E.A., Telikepalli, H., and Audus, K.L. (2009) (3R,5S,7as)-(3,5-Bis(4-fluorophenyl)tetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-7a-yl)methanol, a Novel Neuroprotective Agent.  J. Med. Chem. 52, 7537-7543.   PMID: 19728715

Mitra, P. and Audus, K.L. (2009) Expression and functional activities of sulfotransferase isoforms in BeWo cells and primary cytotrophoblast cells.  Biochem. Pharmacol., 78, 1475-1482.  PMID: 19646966

Desino, K.E., Pignatello, R., Guccione, S., Basile, L., Ansar, S., Michaelis, M.L., Ramsay, R.R., and Audus, K.L. (2009) TCP-FA4: A derivative of tranylcypromine showing improved blood-brain barrier permeability.   Biochem. Pharmacol. 78, 1412-1417.  PMID: 19679106

Mitra, P. and Audus, K.L. (2010) Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) isoforms and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) mediate sulfate conjugate efflux out of BeWo cells.  Int. J. Pharm. 384, 15-23.  PMID: 19782739

Silverstein, P.S., Audus, K.L., Qureshi, N., and Kumar, A. (2010) Lipopolysaccharide increases levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (ABCC1) mRNA, protein, and functional expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages.   J. Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 5, 516-520. PMID: 19894120

Mitra, P., Audus, K.L., Williams, G., Yazdanian, M., and Galinis, D. (2011) A comprehensive study demonstrating that p-glycoprotein function is directly affected by changes in pH: Implications for intestinal pH and effects on drug absorption.  J. Pharm. Sci. 100, 4258-4268.   PMID: 21538355

Kuhnline-Sloan, C.D., Nandi, P., Linz, T.H., Aldrich, J.V., Audus, K.L., Lunte, S.M. (2012) Analytical and biological method for probing the blood-brain barrier function.  Ann. Rev. Anal. Chem. 5, 505-531.   PMID: 22708905

Kuhnline-Sloan, C.D., Audus, K.L., Aldrich, J.V., and Lunte, S.M. (2012) The permeation of dynorphin A 1-6 across the blood-brain barrier and its effect on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayer permeability.   Peptides 38, 414-417.  PMID: 23046728

Joshi, A.A., Vaidya, S.S., St-Pierre, M.V., Mikeev, A.M., Nyandege, A.N., Audus, K.L., Unadkat, J.D., and Gerk, P.M. (2016) Placental ABC transporters:  Biological impact and pharmaceutical significance.  Pharm. Res. 33, 2847-2878.   PMID: 27644937

 

EDITORIAL ACTIVITIES FOR BOOKS AND JOURNALS:

K.L. Audus and T.J. Raub, Eds. (1993) Biological Barriers to Protein Delivery (Volume 4 of "Biopharmaceutical Technology" series, R.T. Borchardt, Ed.), Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.

K.L. Audus (1999) Theme Editor, Transplacental Drug Delivery, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (Tomlinson, E., Hirota, S., Pouton, C.W., and Lee, V.H.L., eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

K.L. Audus (2016) Editor-In-Chief, Special Issue: Dedicated to Professor Ronald T. Borchardt, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

PATENTS

Neuroprotective agents.  Michaelis, M.L., Georg, G.I., Himes, R.H., and Audus, K.L., U.S. Patent 7,598,282 (October 6, 2009).

 

OTHER INVITED PROFESSIONAL ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES:

Audus, K.L. (2007-08) A Message From The Dean.  J. Kansas Pharm. 81, 50-51.

Audus, K.L. (2008-09) A Message From The Dean. J. Kansas Pharm. 82, 15-17.

Audus, K.L. (2009-10) A Message From The Dean. J. Kansas Pharm. 83, 24-25.

Audus, K.L., Moreton, J.E., Normann, S.A., Sands, C.D. III, Seaba, H.H., Wincor, M.Z., Sagraves, R., and Miller, K.W. (2010) Going global: The report of the 2009-2010 research and graduate affairs committee.   Am. J. Pharm. Ed. 74, Article S8.  PMID: 21436917

Audus, K.L. (2010-11) A Message From The Dean. J. Kansas Pharm. 84, 18-19.

Audus, K.L. (2015) Editorial.  J. Pharm. Sci. 104, 288-289.   PMID: 25594867

Audus, K.L. (2016) Editorial.  J. Pharm. Sci. 105, 369.   PMID: 26869405

Schowen, K.B., Schowen, R.L., Borchardt, S.E., Borchardt, P.M., Artursson, P., Audus, K.L., Augustijns, P., Nicolazzo, J.A., Raub, T.J., Takakura, Y., Thakker, D.R., Schoneich, C., Siahaan, T.J., and Wolfe, M.S. (2016) A Tribute to Ronald T. Borchardt – Teacher, Mentor, Scientist, Colleague, Leader, Friend, and Family Man.  J. Pharm. Sci. 105, 370-385.   PMID: 26453244

Warner, M. and Audus, K.L. (2019) Editorial.  J. Pharm. Sci., 108, 2823.  PMID: 31278914

 


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